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高考“情态动词”用法面面观

[日期:2012-07-23] 来源:  作者: [字体: ]

高考“情态动词”用法面面观

江苏省盐城市射阳县盘湾中学黄镇

     情态动词表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度,可以表示可能可以需要必须应当等之意。情态动词没有人称和数的变化。但不能单独作谓语动词用,必须和不带to的不定式连用构成谓语动词。只有情态动词ought要和带to的动词不定式连用,在句中作谓语用。

   将情态动词置于主语之前即构成其疑问式,在情态动词之后加not既构成其否定式。现将各情态动词的基本用法分述如下:

  1cancould (couldcan的过去式) 的基本用法

   (1)表示能力,如:He can speak English better than you.    

(2)在疑问句和否定句中表示怀疑猜测可能性:Can this green bike be Liu Dong's?

(3)表示许可can可以和may换用,如:You can (may) go home now.

(4)如果要表示语气婉转,可用could代替can,这时could不再是can的过去式,

如:Could you come again tomorrow?

(5)canbe able to都可表示能力,两者在意思上没有什么区别。但是can只能有现在式和过去式,而be able to则有更多的形式,如:He will be able to do the work better.

  2maymight (mightmay的过去式)的基本用法

   (1)表示允许或征询对方许可,有可以之意,如:You may use my dictionary.

在回答对方说可以做某事不可以做某事,一般多不用may may not,以避免语气生硬或不容气。而用比较婉转的说法进行回答。

如:---- May I use this dictionary?      ---- Yes, please. ---- Certainly.

在请求对方许可时,如果Might I? 就比用May I? 语气更婉转些,如:May I have a look at your new computer?

但是表示阻止禁止对方做某事时,要用must not代替may not

如:---- May we swim in this lake?  ---- No, you mustnt. Its too dangerous.

(2)may might都可以表示可能性,表示或许可能之意,如果用might表示可能性,则语气更加不肯定,如:They may be in the library now. (他们现在可能在图书馆) .

3must的基本用法

(1)must表示必须应该之意,其否定式 must not,缩写形式为 mustn't,表示不应该,不准不许可禁止之意,:We must learn English hard

(2)对以must提出的疑问句,如作否定回答时,要用needn't或用don't (doesn't) have to ()来回答,而不用mustn't,因为mustn't表示的是禁止不许可之意,:-- Must we finish the work tomorrow? -- No, you needn't (don't have to), but you must finish it in three days.

(3)在肯定句中must可以表示推测,表示一定必定之意,

:-- Whose new bike can it be? --It must be Liu Dong's. I know his father has just bought him a new one.

4can, could, may, must后接完成式的用法

(1)can, could后接完成式的用法:

①在否定句或疑问句中表示对过去发生过的事情的怀疑不肯定的态度,Could he have said so?

②在肯定句中,可以表示过去可能做到而实际并没做到的事情,有劝告责备的语气。

如:---- When did you answer her letter?

---- Only yesterday.

---- It's too late. You could have come back earlier, I am sure.

(2)may, might后接完成式的用法

①表示对过去某事的推测,认为某一件事情在过去可能发生了。如果使用might,语气就比较婉转或更加不肯定,如:Mary might have learned some Chinese before.

②可以表示过去本来可以做到而实际没有做到的事情,有劝告责备的语气,

如:You didn't do the work well that day. You might have done it better.

(3)must后接完成式的用法:表示对过去某事的推测,认为某事在过去一定做到了,

如:Liu Dong isnt in the classroom. He must have went to the library.

5have to 的基本用法:have tomust的意义相近,只是 must侧重表示说话人的主观看法,have to 则表示客观需要,

6ought to的基本用法

(l)表示根据某种义务或必要应当做某事,语气比should强,

例如:Everyone ought to obey the traffic regulations.

(2)表示推测,注意与must表示推测时的区别:

He must be home by now .(断定他已到家)He ought to be home by now .(不十分肯定)

 (3)ought + have+ 过去分词表示过去应做某事而实际未做。

  7dare的基本用法

(l)dare (dared为其过去式) 作情态动词用时,主要用于否定句,疑问句和条件从句中,

如:Dared he break the traffic regulations again?

(2)在现代英语中dare常用作行为动词,其变化与一般行为动词相同,

8need的基本用法

(1)need作情态动词用时,主要用于否定句和疑问句中

(2)need也可作为行为动词用,可用于肯定句,否定句和疑问句中,其后可接名词、代词、动名词或带 to 的动词不定式为其宾语。

(3)needn't后接完成式可以表示过去做了一件本来不必要做的事情,

9shall的基本用法

(1)shall用作情态动词时,用于第二、三人称,表示说活人的意愿,可表示命令警告强制威胁允诺等意,如:He shall go first, whether he wants to or not.

(2)在疑问句中,shall用于第一、三人称,表示说话人的征询对方意见或请求指示,

如: Shall I open the door?          You shall get a new bike for your birthday.

10should的基本用法

(1)should作为情态动词可以表示建议劝告,有应该之意,

如:    --- I think Ill give Bob a ring.

      --- You should . You havent been in touch with him for ages. 

 (2)should后接完成式表示过去没有做到本来应该做的事情,或是做了本来不应该做的事情。

如:You should have give him more help.

l. I told your friend how to get to the hotel, but perhaps I should have driven her there.

My cats really fat.  You shouldnt have given her so much food.

11will的基本用法

(1)用于各人称,可以表示意志决心

如:I have told him again and again to stop smoking, but he wont.

(2)在疑问句中用于第二人称,表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问对方的意愿,

如:Will you tell me how to get to the Capital Gymnasium?

(3)will可以表示一种习惯性的动作,有总是会要之意,

如:Every morning he will walk along the river.

12would的基本用法

(1)would作为will的过去式,可用于各人称,表示过去时间的意志决心如:He promised  he would never smoke again.

(2)在疑问句中,用于第二人称,表示说话人向对方提出请求或许问对方的意愿时,比用will的气更加婉转,如:Would you like some more coffee?

(3)在日常生活中,学用I would like to…”表示我想要我愿意之意,以使语气婉转,

如:I would like to do Ex.2 first.

(4)would可以表示过去的习惯动作,比used to正式,并没有现已无此习惯的含义。

如:Last year our English teacher would sometimes tell us stories in English after class.

 (5)表料想或猜想,如:It would be about ten when he left home./ What would she be doing there?/ I thought he would have told you about it.

13used to, had better, would rather的用法

(1)used to表示过去的习惯动作或状态,现在已不存在,在间接引语中,其形式可不变,例如:

He told us he used to play foot ball when he was young. 在疑问句、否定句、否定疑问句或强调句中,可有两种形式。

疑问句:Did you use to/ Used you to go to the same school as your brother?

否定句:I usednt to / didnt use to go there. (usednt 也可写作usent)

否定疑问句:Usent you to/ Didnt you use to be interested in the theatre?

强调句:I certainly used to/ did use to smoke, but it was a long time ago.

其反意疑问句或简略回答中,也有两种形式:

She used to be very fat. didnt she?/ usednt she?

 (2)had better意为最好,后接不带to的不定式,例如:

---- We had better go now .      ---- Yes, we had (we'd better/ we had better).

(3)would rather意为宁愿,表选择,后接不带to的不定式,

例如:Id rather not say anything.    Would you rather work on a farm?

---- Wouldnt you rather stay here?    ---- No, I would not. Id rather go there.

由于would rather表选择,因而后可接than,例如:

I would rather work on a farm than in a factory. / I would rather watch TV than go to see the film

Id rather you didnt talk about this to anyone. (句中的 'd rather不是情态动词,would 在此是表愿望的实义动词)

 

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